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What is HIIT?

High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a type of training modality used in exercise to get maximum bang for your buck.

HIIT is a type of workout using short bursts of exercise that get the heart rate elevated, followed by a short rest period, and then repeated multiple times to match the fitness level of the individual.

The benefits of HIIT

HIIT training has been used by athletes for many years but the benefits for individuals of all ability levels is now being realised.

8 Benefits of HIIT Workouts

 

HIIT is time efficient

One of the main advantages of HIIT is you can get equivalent and often better health benefits from a short interval training session than consistent activities such as walking, jogging or cycling activities over a longer time.

HIIT can burn more calories and improve your metabolism

A study completed by Falcon et al. (2015) measured energy expenditure in three different forms of exercise: aerobic, resistance, and HIIT training and found HIIT training burned 25-30% more calories than the other forms of exercise.

The type of exercise session used focused on 20 secs at a maximal effort followed by 40 secs rest. Once finished Interval training the body also continues to burn energy above your normal metabolism as repairing and recovering is needed to take place.

Recovery will happen during rest which results in more energy being expended for the day. Therefore the harder the session the more energy is burned up when resting.

HIIT can help reduce blood pressure

HIIT can be great for those who have high blood pressure, as immediately following exercise your blood pressure and heart rate will reduce.

Heart rate can become lower at rest due to HIIT improving a person’s aerobic fitness (Coilac, et. Al, 2010).

A reduction in heart rate, results in the heart not having to work as hard, which is beneficial for those with cardiovascular disease.

Blood pressure also drops due to exercise making the heart stronger and being able to pump blood with less effort.

(https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/high-blood-pressure/art-20045206)

 

How can you do HIIT

A few simple workouts you can try are:

  • Cycling (30 seconds hard followed by 2 min easy).
  • Try this for 15-20 mins. Walking / jogging (5 mins followed by 1 min easy).
  • Try this for 30mins. Sitting to standing up.
  • Try 10-20 reps continuous followed by 2 mins rest.
  • Try 3-4 rounds of this.

How to Avoid Injury with HIIT

With any form of exercise it is really important to avoid injury. HIIT can involve fast paced and high impact movements, so knowing how to prevent injury is crucial.

Some tips to help you remain injury free are:

  • Start with seeking professional advice and supervision
  • Warm up and cool down
  • Mix up your choice of interval mode
  • Mix up muscle use and change direction
  • Listen to your body
  • Rest and nutrition

Join a class For more fun and variety, joining an exercise class or doing some 1:1 training with an Exercise Physiologist will help to plan and give you a workout that best matches your fitness level.

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-hiit#section5

 

Matt Werner

Contact our Exercise Physiologist Matt, at Lilyfield Physio for more information about group/class sessions and 1:1 HIIT training.

CONTACT MATT TODAY

 

BACK PAIN – What do we know?

back pain - lilyfield physio

 

A group of 30 international authors recently published a Back Pain Series in the Lancet journal. It covers the most recent research into back pain in terms of effective and ineffective interventions and treatment and how we understand pain. Below is an overview of the current recommendations for low back pain, based on the most recent research and evidence.

Low back pain is very common. So common in fact, it is now the leading cause of disability world-wide. In 2015, low back pain was responsible for more than 60 million years lost to disability world-wide1. This global economic and societal burden is projected to further increase in the coming years as the result of an aging population, urbanisation and the use of technologies that relate to increasingly sedentary lifestyles1,2.

For those of us who have experienced initially strong and disabling back pain, it may be tempting to seek an X-ray, CT scan or MRI, in an attempt to diagnose the cause of the pain. However, except in rare cases, such as a spinal fracture or tumour, it is often not possible to identify a specific cause of low back pain3. Furthermore, scans for lower back pain in which fracture or tumour is not considered likely, can actually confuse the issue. An MRI can show findings that may be incorrectly attributed to the cause of a patient’s pain. Two people can have exactly the same findings, for example a disc bulge, but one will feel no pain at all3. It is important for people to be assured that most episodes of low back pain will be short and with little or no consequence4.

What about pharmaceutical pain relief for low back pain? What works?

The Lancet Back Pain Series found the use of paracetamol to have little effect on acute low back pain and together with its potential for harm, has led to recommendations against its use5. Associate Professor Mark Hancock was one of the authors who worked on the Series and says a short period on anti-inflammatories may be helpful in helping to get the person moving, but to try to avoid the use of opioids in almost all cases.

Back pain is the main reason people use opioids over a long period of time and substantial risks exist due to their potential for addiction, overdose and poorer long-term outcomes6.

  Do I need surgery?

Desperate for pain relief, patients may look to surgery, but again, according to the latest research, surgery is rarely the best option for back pain2,8. And yet lumbar spine surgery rates are roughly doubling every 10 years.

Surgery for Back Pain

There are exceptions where spinal surgery may be warranted, for example in cases of trauma, tumour or neurological deficit from instability or displacement of the vertebrae. But for patients with typical degenerative changes in the spine and chronic low back pain, without a significant neurological problem, spinal surgery is not indicated or advisable. Surgery is expensive and increases the risk of harm and there is no high-level evidence of a benefit in these cases2.

What about cortisone injections? Do they work?

Many people have sought, or been advised to have, a cortisone injection to treat low back pain. However, the Lancet researchers also found little evidence to support the effectiveness for these injections7.

Little evidence to support cortisone injections for back pain

Associate Professor Mark Hancock who worked on the Series, says that “The best estimate we have from previous studies is that corticosteroid injections reduce sciatica (leg pain associated with back pain) by only five points on a 100-point scale compared to placebo in the short term, with no long term benefit.”

So where does that leave us? Well the research helps us there too…

We can start by reframing the way we think about pain. The latest research indicates that the brain creates pain as a protective mechanism, not a measure of tissue damage4. High intensity of pain and accompanying distress often causes people to stop moving and lay down and ‘rest’ but this can lead to stiffness and weakness and often causes more harm.

Associate Professor Mark Hancock says it is important for patients to understand it is safe to move, even into a little bit of pain and that they will start to get better. Exercise can not only provide pain relief, but also help in the prevention of further episodes by 50 per cent. There is no strong evidence that one type of exercise is superior to another, most exercise is beneficial2.

So talk to us. As physiotherapists we are perfectly positioned with the expertise and skills to assess your back and get you moving again, with confidence and without fear. We can help you find the most appropriate exercise, which may be as simple as going for a walk or a swim. It could be a dance class or a Pilates class. The option are as wide and varied as you care to consider!  

 

References:
  1. GBD 2016 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017; 390: 1211–1259
  2. Foster, NE, Anema, JR, Cherkin, D et al. Prevention and treatment of low back pain: evidence, challenges, and promising directions. (published online March 21.)Lancet. 2018
  3. Jame, SZ, Sari, AA, Majdzadeh, R, Rashidian, A, Arab, M, and Rahmani, H. The extent of inappropriate use of magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain and its contributory factors. Int J Prev Med. 2014; 5: 1029–1036
  4. Hartvigsen, J, Hancock, MJ, Kongsted, A et al. What low back pain is and why we need to pay attention. (published online March 21.)Lancet. 2018
  5. Machado, GC, Maher, CG, Ferreira, PH et al. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials. BMJ. 2015; 350: h1225
  6. Dowell, D, Haegerich, TM, and Chou, R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain: United States, 2016. JAMA. 2016; 315: 1624–1645
  7. Chou, R, Hashimoto, R, Friedly, J et al. Epidural corticosteroid injections for radiculopathy and spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015; 163: 373–381
  8. Chou, R, Baisden, J, Carragee, EJ, Resnick, DK, Shaffer, WO, and Loeser, JD. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine. 2009; 34: 1094–1109

RUNNING – WHO’D HAVE THOUGHT!?

running - lilyfield physio
Yes, running is proven to benefit fitness, strength, bone density etc, but did you know it is one of the best exercises for:
  • tightening your lower CORE
  • REDUCING joint pain (neck, back, hip, knees)
  • improving brain function (increasing cerebral blood flow)

 

Running - learn to run at Lilyfield Physio

It’s Easier Than You Think

For a lot of people, the idea of going for a run is intimidating or downright unpleasant. That’s not surprising, given the image we often see of the pink-faced, puffing, pounding runner. It doesn’t have to be like that. It can actually be relaxing once you’ve learnt how (I know – mad!) A lot of our client are thrilled to find, after 1 or 2 simple sessions, that they are able to run perfectly well. Many are happy just to run Scout’s pace i.e. alternate light jogging with walking. Some go on to much more.

Get Started

Often one consultation is enough to assess your medical history, design some goals and get you going. We will send you a running specific questionnaire in advance to ensure you get the most out of your initial running assessment consultation.
Our physiotherapist Mark Stockdale is a Certified Running Specialist. Mark has worked with elite athletes but gets most joy out of seeing the ‘running-averse’ learn a simple trot. The benefits to health and confidence can be immense.

Our exercise physiologist Matt Werner is an elite 800m runner. His degree in Sport Science equips him perfectly to assess and coach running.

MORE ABOUT OUR RUNNING GROUP

 

Bad For The Knees?

The science consensus over the last 10+years suggests that the opposite is the case. Even with people who already suffer from arthritis! (We would be happy to provide the research conclusions to any Orthopedic surgeon or GP who is curious).

Performance

Are you already a runner and would like to get faster, fitter or improve your technique? Do you have an event coming up and are aiming for a PR? We can work with you, tweak your technique (if necessary), draft a training plan and help you to achieve those goals.

Those of you born before say 1985 will know who this strange fellow is. Gumboots are no longer the recommended footwear but Cliff was onto something.

IF YOU WANT TO RUN, GET IN TOUCH

 

COMMON SOCCER INJURIES

Kam Bhabra, Lilyfield Physiotherapist, treating soccer injuries, knee injuries - Arsenal

Soccer Injuries – How Often & Why?

Most soccer injuries affect the lower extremities and current research shows that most soccer injuries are caused by direct trauma, such as a collision with an opponent or landing awkwardly from a jump. Approximately one quarter to one third of all soccer injuries are due to indirect trauma namely overuse and develop over a period of time.

When reviewing the published literature on soccer injuries, the overall incidence of injury in soccer is between 9 and 35 injuries per 1000 hours of soccer in adults, and between 0.5 and 13 injuries per 1000 hours of soccer in adolescents. It is clear that the older the player, the more likely they are to get injured.

The research also shows that more injuries occur during competitive matches than occur during training. There is also a sex difference in soccer injuries with female players having a higher injury rate than males.

Soccer is still very popular despite its higher incidence of injury in comparison to other sports.

 

Common Soccer Injuries, knee injuries - lilyfield physio

Most Common Soccer Injuries in Adolescents

The most common adolescent Injuries in soccer:

1. Osgood’s Schlatters Disease
Pain below the knee due to pull of quadriceps muscle at its insertion

2.  Sever’s Disease
Pain in heel due to pull of Achilles tendon at its insertion

Both injuries are overuse injuries and tend to coincide with growth spurts in young players.

 

Common Soccer Injuries in adults - hamstring strain

Five Most Common Soccer Injuries in Adults

Reviewing the literature, the 5 most common soccer related injuries in adults are:

1. Hamstring Strain
The most common injury in soccer appears to be the hamstring muscle strain. This two-jointed muscle has large forces going through it that stretches and possibly tears the muscle fibres. This can come from the muscle being too tight and stretching the muscle that little bit too far to get the ball or running at high speed while fatigued.

2. Lateral Ankle Sprain
The second most common injury in football is the lateral ankle sprain. This occurs when the foot lands incorrectly and rolls under the body, causing the ligaments to become stretched and possibly torn. This comes from a lack of balance and can cause more serious conditions like chronic ankle instability.

3. Knee Meniscus (Cartilage)
The third most common injury is a knee meniscus tear. This happens when the foot is planted into the ground and the knee twists or turns in an unnatural position causing the meniscus to tear under weight-bearing load.

4. Hernia
Hernia’s are something that many people wouldn’t expect to see on this list but are something that occurs a lot in football due to the stress footballers put on their body. Hernia’s are where an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or fascia that is trying to protect it, it occurs from the high stresses of footballers repetitively kicking the ball. The two main areas affected are the inguinal canal (Inguinal Hernia) or lower abdominals (Sports Hernia).

5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
This injury occurs when the knee experiences a sudden change in direction under load and the lower part of leg continues to move forward or rotate out relative to the upper leg causing the ligament to stretch, but most commonly tear.

Kam Bhabra, Lilyfield Physio, knee injuries, soccer injuriesPhysio – Kam Bhabra

This newsletter was written by Kam Bhabra our Senior Sports Physiotherapist, who has over 20 years experience and worked with Arsenal Football Club for six years as Head Academy Physiotherapist.

Kam is also a qualified soccer coach and a talented player achieving semi-professional level in the UK. In this regard he has a wealth of knowledge and experience regarding soccer related injuries.

Kam still playing veterans soccer for North Sydney United 2017 season.

 

If you experience any of these injuries and wish to consult a physiotherapist call 9810 2203 to make an appointment

HOW MUCH EXERCISE SHOULD YOU BE DOING?

walking exercise Lilyfield Physiotherapy
Physical Activity can be defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. The definition of Exercise differs slightly from Physical activity as exercise is an activity that is carried out for a specific purpose and is generally planned. Some of the benefits of increasing activity can be:
  • Prevent unhealthy weight gain and assist with weight loss.
  • Build strong muscles and bones.
  • Reduce the risk of, or help manage, cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Maintain and/or improve blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  • Improve energy levels.
  • Enhance heart and lung function.

Weekly Recommendation

The Recommendation for Australian adults is to accumulate 150-300 minutes of moderate intensity or 75-150 minutes of vigorous intensity exercise per week.

It is however important to gradually build up to this amount to avoid risk of injury and to make exercise become a regular routine.

It is also recommended to incorporate at least 2 days a week of resistance exercises within your total time of physical activity.

Cycling Lilyfield Physiotherapy

Activity Intensity Levels

Moderate Intensity
An activity where you should still be able to talk white working out.
  • Brisk walking
  • Recreational Swimming and dancing
  • Social tennis
  • Riding a bike
  • Golf
  • Playing active games
Vigorous Intensity
An activity which requires much more effort and the feeling of being out of breath.
  • Jogging
  • Fast cycling
  • Many organised sports
  • Tasks involving lifting, carrying, or digging

Exercise Physiologist

Any exercise is better than nothing when increasing overall physical activity. It can be hard to determine what exercise is suitable for you especially if you have any pre-existing conditions / injuries. An Exercise Physiologist can help design and implement the best session for you as they will take into account:

  • Type of exercise or activity (eg, walking, swimming, cycling).
  • Specific workloads (eg, reps, watts, walking speed, distance).
  • Duration and frequency of the activity or exercise session.
  • Intensity guidelines – heart rate range and estimated rate of perceived exertion (RPE).
  • Precautions regarding certain conditions and concerns relating to what exercises are most suitable.

HIP PAIN – ARE YOUR HIPS HUNGRY?

Hip Pain diagram - Lilyfield Physio

Walking, climbing stairs, running, jumping or squatting; your hips are doing most of the work. At least they would like to be. The hip joint is a big and very mobile joint and is hungry to play a dominant role in weight bearing activities. This calls for strong muscle activity especially from the powerful Gluteal Muscles (buttock muscles). Strong muscle activity requires good brain – nerve – muscle connections as well as actual muscle strength.

Pain often alerts us to a muscle imbalance problem and there are many hip problems associated with Gluteal muscle inactivity:

·       Gluteal tendinopathy
·       Groin Strain
·       Hamstring Strain
·       Hip Joint Impingement
·       Hip Arthritis
·       Bursitis

Do you have a leg to stand on?

For the gluteal muscles to work efficiently and consistently we really need to be able to stand up on top of our leg. This sounds obvious but often due to weakness or postural trunk muscle tension we land on our leg with our body pulling us off balance and we are just propped on the front or side of our leg. The Gluteal muscles will not fire up as needed and a vicious cycle of hip muscle weakness continues.

How do we fire up our gluteal muscles?

Gluteal muscle exercises such as the side lying – clam exercise and the bridge exercise have been shown to activate the Gluteal muscles and will take the edge off your hungry hips.

More importantly, exercises that target natural weight bearing activities will encourage the automatic firing pattern of the Gluteal muscles and this will make strengthening easier, more efficient and more powerful.

Step exercise and stair climbing

Learn to climb stairs with a dominant hip movement strategy. This will reduce pain and stress in the hip and knee and enable a much stronger action. Press down into the step with your entire foot engaging the connection between your foot, knee and hip and stand up on top of your leg. Let your heel drop and try not to lean forwards.

Step exercises - Lilyfield Physio

Beware of Sitting

Your sitting habits may compromise your hip movement and can play a big role in the inefficiency of the hip muscles. Moving more often helps avoid the dangers of habitual sitting. Practice standing up and sitting down with Gluteal muscle awareness many times every day.

Ensure your efforts are rewarded

Exercise success is always facilitated by having a reason for the exercise which is related to moving freely and strongly as well as being without pain. Enjoy the power of contented hips.

Running - Lilyfield Physio

PREVENT NECK PAIN with EXERCISE

Neck Pain and Shoulder pain while working at a desk.

Is neck pain at work giving you grief?

Increasing computerisation in the work place has made it difficult for us to keep a strong back and neck.

Could you benefit from strengthening exercises for your neck and shoulder muscles?

Researchers from University of Queensland reviewed the scientific evidence for workplace-based interventions for office workers with neck pain. The study was published in the journal Physical Therapy.

https://academic.oup.com/ptj/article-abstract/98/1/40/4562646#.WnKF0MuIgk0.email

The study found that regular exercise to strengthen the neck and shoulder muscles was the most effective intervention and was of greater benefit than trying to find the ideal ergonomic set up.

Simple neck / shoulder strengthening exercises may be what you need in 2018.

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